Throughout history there have been many eras that both share similarities as well as differences in the areas of art and civilization. Two eras that illustrate this are the Roman Empire and the Byzantium Empire.
In Rome there were three major art forms. The first was civil engineering, which involved building cities in an orderly fashion, in order to accommodate the needs of all citizens. The Romans also used portrait sculptures, which reflected the roman ideals about their people being stern as well as individual. They were used to illustrate the love of patriarchy, love of family, and were usually portraits of actual people. The third art form was commemorative monuments. These were used for propaganda. The monuments helped to instill fear in possible threats, or potential invaders. Also the arch and vault were essential part of Roman monumental architecture.
The Romans were a militaristic Empire. They used their architecture to emphasize their power. For example the column of Trajen was used to show the wonder of civil engineering, and the emphasis on military might and their superiority over everyone. The Gladiator Games also say something about Roman civilization. The
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